Drüeke, T. B.
Author Affiliation :
INSERM U, 90, Département de Néphrologie, Hôpital Necker, Paris, France.
Nutritional Factors in Hypertension
This review focuses on factors involved in intestinal calcium absorption which could have an influence on the bioavailability of the ion in normal healthy adults in terms of a more positive or more negative balance. In addition to dietary factors, the nutritional and metabolic state of the host (such as calcium and vitamin D status, pregnancy and lactation) play a major role in the bioavailability and balance of calcium. In the long term, this balance is reflected by the level of bone calcium, which constitutes the major calcium reservoir. Factors able to enhance calcium absorption include: calcitriol, luminal ionized calcium concentration, sodium, solvent drag, milk products (lactose, casein and derived phosphopeptides) and calcium citrate. Other factors are able to diminish the efficacy of calcium absorption; these include phosphorus, dietary fibre, fat, alcohol, hormones (calcitonin, glucocorticoids, thyroxine), genetic influences and drugs such as thiazide diuretics and phenothiazines. Furthermore, calcium secretion may be modified by expansion of the extracellular fluid and plasma volume (sodium load), low calcium diet and hormones (somatostatin). It is concluded that adequate dietary calcium is of utmost importance to avoid a negative calcium balance. The precise amount required may be more or less elevated depending on physical status and dietary habits.
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Organism descriptor(s) :
Calcium absorption, reviews
Broader term(s) :
Homo, Hominidae, primates, mammals, vertebrates, Chordata, animals, eukaryotes