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  • All dosage compensation is local: gene-by-gene regulation of sex-biased expression on the chicken Z chromosome.

    Author(s) : Mank, J. E.Ellegren, H.

    Author Affiliation : Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PS, UK.

    Author Email : judith.mank@zoo.ox.ac.uk

    Journal article : Heredity 2009 Vol.102 No.3 pp.312-320 ref.42

    Abstract : Recent reports have suggested that birdsbirdsSubject Category: Organism Names
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    lack a mechanism of wholesale dosage compensationdosage compensationSubject Category: Miscellaneous
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    for the Z sex chromosome. This discovery was rather unexpected, as all other animalsanimalsSubject Category: Organism Names
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    investigated with chromosomal mechanisms of sex determinationsex determinationSubject Category: Miscellaneous
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    have some method to counteract the effects of gene dosagegene dosageSubject Category: Properties
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    of the dominant sex chromosome in males and females. Despite the lack of a global mechanism of avian dosage compensation, the pattern of gene expressiongene expressionSubject Category: Miscellaneous
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    difference between males and females varies a great deal for individual Z-linked genesgenesSubject Category: Miscellaneous
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    . This suggests that some genes may be individually dosage compensated, and that some less-than-global pattern of dosage compensation, such as local or temporal, exists on the avian Z chromosome. We used global gene expression profiling in males and females for both somatic and gonadal tissue at several time points in the life cycle of the chicken to assess the pattern of sex-biased gene expression on the Z chromosome. Average fold-change between males and females varied somewhat among tissue time-point combinations, with embryonic brain samples having the smallest gene dosage effects, and adult gonadal tissue having the largest degree of male bias. Overall, there were no neighborhoods of overall dosage compensation along the Z. Taken together, this suggests that dosage compensation is regulated on the Z chromosome entirely on a gene-by-gene level, and can vary during the life cycle and by tissue type. This regulation may be an indication of how critical a given gene's functionality is, as the expression level for essential genes will be tightly regulated in order to avoid perturbing important pathways and networks with differential expression levels in males and females.

    ISSN : 0018-067X

    DOI : 10.1038/hdy.2008.116

    Record Number : 20093080712

    Publisher : Nature Publishing Group

    Location of publication : Basingstoke

    Country of publication : UK

    Language of text : English

    Indexing terms for this abstract:

    Organism descriptor(s) : birdsbirdsSubject Category: Organism Names
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    , fowlsfowlsSubject Category: Organism Names
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    Descriptor(s) : chick embryoschick embryosSubject Category: Anatomical and Morphological Structures
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    , dosage compensationdosage compensationSubject Category: Miscellaneous
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    , embryonic developmentembryonic developmentSubject Category: Natural Processes
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    , gene dosagegene dosageSubject Category: Properties
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    , gene expressiongene expressionSubject Category: Miscellaneous
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    , genesgenesSubject Category: Miscellaneous
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    , genetic regulationgenetic regulationSubject Category: Miscellaneous
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    , poultrypoultrySubject Category: Organism Groups
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    , sex chromosomessex chromosomesSubject Category: Anatomical and Morphological Structures
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    , sex determinationsex determinationSubject Category: Miscellaneous
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    , sex differencessex differencesSubject Category: Properties
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    , sex linkagesex linkageSubject Category: Miscellaneous
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    Identifier(s) : chickens, domesticated birds, embryo development, embryo growth

    Broader term(s) : Gallus gallusgallus gallusSubject Category: Organism Names
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    , GallusgallusSubject Category: Organism Names
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    , PhasianidaephasianidaeSubject Category: Organism Names
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    , GalliformesgalliformesSubject Category: Organism Names
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    , birdsbirdsSubject Category: Organism Names
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    , vertebratesvertebratesSubject Category: Organism Names
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    , ChordatachordataSubject Category: Organism Names
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    , animalsanimalsSubject Category: Organism Names
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    , eukaryoteseukaryotesSubject Category: Organism Names
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