Yamada, H.; Kiyohara, H.; Matsumoto, T.
Author Affiliation :
Kitasato Institute for Life Sciences, Kitasato University, 5-9-1, Shirokane, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8641, Japan.
Schols, H. A.; Visser, R. G. F.; Voragen, A. G. J.
Pectins and pectinases
Many plants have been exploited since ancient times for health care of humans, and several pharmacological activities could be attributed to pectins and pectic polysaccharides present in the medicinal plants and plant derived foods. It can therefore be expected that also isolated carbohydrate structures will be biological active and find application in health care. Food polysaccharides are, similar to herbal medicines, generally taken orally, therefore their biological effects are expected to be expressed through the intestinal immune system. Peyer's patches play important roles as an inductive lymphoid organ of the intestinal immune system. The intestinal immune system contributes not only to the defense system of the mucosa, but also regulates the systemic immune system. Therefore these regulative molecules of the intestinal immune system have potential as new immuno-modulators of both systems. Polysaccharide fractions from medicinal herbs were screened for enhancement of Peyer's patch mediated intestinal immune response. Potent activity was observed in extracts containing pectic polysaccharides, and arabino-3,6-galactans from rhizomes of Atractylodes lancea, leaves of Astragalus mongholicus and roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis. Active carbohydrate structures were characterized to be mainly arabino 3,6-galactans, rhamnogalacturonan (RG) I and RGII. The inner surface of the intestinal tract possesses a large area of mucosal membranes, and the intestinal epithelial cells exist at the interface between an antigen-rich lumen and a lymphocyte-rich lamina propria. When MCE 301 cells from the murine normal colonic epithelial cell line, were stimulated with a pectic polysaccharide, bupleuran 2IIc, from the roots of Bupleurum falcatum, only the content of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was significantly increased in the conditioned medium. In the carbohydrates structure of RGI, arabinan moiety was suggested to involve in the activity.
Record Number :
Wageningen Academic Publishers
Location of publication :
Country of publication :
Language of text :
Language of summary :
Indexing terms for this abstract:
Organism descriptor(s) :
Astragalus, Atractylodes lancea, Bupleurum falcatum, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, mice, plants
animal models, carbohydrates, cytokines, herbal drugs, immune response, immune system, immunity, immunomodulators, in vitro, intestinal mucosa, intestines, laboratory animals, leaves, medicinal plants, pectins, peyer patches, plant extracts, polysaccharides, rhizomes, roots
Araliales, Astragalus mongholicus, complex carbohydrates, drug plants, epithelial cells, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, herbal medicines, immunity reactions, immunological reactions, intestine epithelium, medicinal herbs, officinal plants, saccharides
Broader term(s) :
Papilionoideae, Fabaceae, Fabales, eudicots, angiosperms, Spermatophyta, plants, eukaryotes, Atractylodes, Asteraceae, Asterales, Bupleurum, Apiaceae, Apiales, Glycyrrhiza, Muridae, rodents, mammals, vertebrates, Chordata, animals