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  • Sexually active groups in cattle - a novel estrus sign.

    Author(s) : Sveberg, G.Refsdal, A. O.Erhard, H. W.Kommisrud, E.Aldrin, M.Tvete, I. F.Buckley, F.Waldmann, A.Ropstad, E.

    Author Affiliation : Department of Production Animal Clinical Sciences, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, N-0033 Oslo, Norway.

    Author Email : guro.sveberg@tine.no

    Journal article : Journal of Dairy Science 2013 Vol.96 No.7 pp.4375-4386

    Abstract : The current study presents a novel objective measure for characterizing sexually active groups (SAG 3-5) and relates this measure to other behaviors of lactating Holstein-Friesianholstein-friesianSubject Category: Organism Names
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    holstein-friesianSubject Category: Animal Breeds
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    cows. Cows in SAG 3-5 were required to participate in a minimum of 1 estrus behavior per 5 min while staying within 3 m (2 cow lengths) of its partner(s) for a minimum of 5 min. Twenty Holstein-Friesian cows were video-monitored continuously through 1 complete estrous cycleestrous cycleSubject Category: Natural Processes
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    estrous cycleSubject Category: Natural Processes
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    (22 d). Standing behavior, SAG 3-5, secondary estrus signs (SEC), and other social and agonistic behaviors were recorded continuously. The period of mounting estrus (MTE) was divided into the 3 parts: prestand, standing estrus (STE), and poststand. The mean durations of MTE, prestand, STE, and poststand period were 12.9±1.84, 4.0±1.93, 7.1±1.44, and 1.8±0.57 h (n=13). The fractions of time spent in SAG 3-5 during MTE, prestand, STE, and poststand period were 13, 8, 19, and 1% (n=11). During MTE, cows participated, on average, in 5.8±1.24 SAG 3-5 and initiated 9.5±2.99 mounts, with mean durations of 0.25±0.03 h and 4.00±0.36 s, respectively. The novel measure SAG 3-5 was a sign of long duration not confined only to groups of STE cows. On one day when no cows were in estrus and during the periods 4 to 24 h before and after MTE, no SAG 3-5 behaviors were observed. Luteal-phase cows participated in SAG 3-5 only when the partner was a single cow in estrus. The time spent in SAG 3-5 increased between 1 and 3 h before MTE and the prestand period (3 vs. 8%) and reached a peak level during STE. From STE to poststand, time spent in SAG 3-5 decreased considerably (19 vs. 1%). The observed decrease in nonmutual agonistic behaviors 4 to 24 h before MTE is suggested as an early sign of pre-estrus. Changes in SAG 3-5, agonistic behaviors, and SEC are suggested as indicators of the specific stages of MTE. Increased SEC initiated and SAG 3-5 were indicators of late pre-estrus and early estrus (prestand). Peak levels of SAG 3-5, SEC, and social agonistic behaviors were indicators of STE. A sudden decrease in behaviors, preceded by frequent interactionsinteractionsSubject Category: Miscellaneous
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    , was indicative of late estrus (poststand). On the basis of the findings reported here, we propose that SAG 3-5, as well as proceptive and receptive patterns of SEC and agonistic behaviors, be included in estrus detection protocols. Updated knowledge of these behavioral interactions may assist when determining the stage of estrus and the optimal time to breed dairy cowsdairy cowsSubject Category: Organism Groups
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    .

    ISSN : 0022-0302

    DOI : 10.3168/jds.2012-6407

    Record Number : 20133238808

    Publisher : Elsevier Inc.

    Location of publication : Philadelphia

    Country of publication : USA

    Language of text : English

    Indexing terms for this abstract:

    Organism descriptor(s) : cattlecattleSubject Category: Organism Names
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    , Holstein-Friesianholstein-friesianSubject Category: Animal Breeds
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    Descriptor(s) : agonistic behaviouragonistic behaviourSubject Category: Miscellaneous
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    , animal behaviouranimal behaviourSubject Category: Miscellaneous
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    , behaviourbehaviourSubject Category: Miscellaneous
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    , breedsbreedsSubject Category: Organism Groups
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    , cattle breedscattle breedsSubject Category: Organism Groups
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    , cowscowsSubject Category: Organism Groups
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    , dairy cowsdairy cowsSubject Category: Organism Groups
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    , dairy sciencedairy scienceSubject Category: Disciplines, Occupations and Industries
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    , interactionsinteractionsSubject Category: Miscellaneous
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    , milkmilkSubject Category: Commodities and Products
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    , oestrous cycleoestrous cycleSubject Category: Natural Processes
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    Identifier(s) : agonistic behavioragonistic behaviorSubject Category: Miscellaneous
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    , animal behavioranimal behaviorSubject Category: Miscellaneous
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    , animal breed, animal breeds, behaviorbehaviorSubject Category: Miscellaneous
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    , breeding cycle, estrous cycleestrous cycleSubject Category: Natural Processes
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    , oestrous, reproductive cycle

    Broader term(s) : cattlecattleSubject Category: Organism Names
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    , BosbosSubject Category: Organism Names
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    , BovidaebovidaeSubject Category: Organism Names
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    , ruminantsruminantsSubject Category: Organism Names
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    , ArtiodactylaartiodactylaSubject Category: Organism Names
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    , mammalsmammalsSubject Category: Organism Names
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    , vertebratesvertebratesSubject Category: Organism Names
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    , ChordatachordataSubject Category: Organism Names
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    , animalsanimalsSubject Category: Organism Names
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    , eukaryoteseukaryotesSubject Category: Organism Names
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