Grootheest, G. van; Milaneschi, Y.; Lips, P. T. A. M.; Heijboer, A. C.; Smit, J. H.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.
Author Affiliation :
GGZ inGeest, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
Author Email :
Netherlands Journal of Medicine
Background: Vitamin D plays a key role in maintaining skeletal health, but is also related to various non-skeletal health issues. Several determinants have been identified that influence blood plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), often in specific patients or elderly populations. This paper aims to replicate these findings in a healthy population. Methods: Plasma levels of 25(OH)D were measured using tandem mass spectrometry. We examined the cross-sectional association of sociodemographic, health, lifestyle and sampling characteristics with 25(OH)D in a group of 539 adults, who were healthy control subjects in the NESDA study in the Netherlands (latitude 52°N). Results: Mean 25(OH)D levels were 68.0 (±27.2) nmol/l. Levels under 50 nmol/l occurred in 27% of the population; 40% reached levels above 75 nmol/l. Women had higher levels than men, and the use of oral contraceptives showed a significant positive association among females. Subjects with non-European ancestry had dramatically lower 25(OH)D levels. Other factors that were negatively associated were body mass index and the renal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Meteorological data replaced season as a significant determinant. Moderate alcohol consumption and sports showed a positive association, while physical activity and the hepatic marker gamma-glutamyl transferase did not. Our results disconfirm the influence of age in this population of under 65 year olds. Conclusion: Insufficient 25(OH)D levels were common in a healthy population. The set of eight variables that were significant in a multiple regression model (sex, ancestry, oral contraceptives, eGFR, BMI, sports, alcohol, sunshine) explained 29.5% of the variance.
Record Number :
Van Zuiden Communications BV
Location of publication :
Alphen aan den Rijn
Country of publication :
Language of text :
Language of summary :
Indexing terms for this abstract:
Organism descriptor(s) :
adults, age differences, alcohol intake, blood plasma, body mass index, disease markers, ethnic groups, ethnicity, exposure, gamma-glutamyltransferase, glomerular filtration rate, kidneys, measurement, men, meteorological factors, oral contraceptives, physical activity, sex differences, solar radiation, sport, vitamin D, women
25-hydroxyvitamin D, alcohol consumption, ethnic differences, glutamyl transferase, metrology, plasma (blood), sunlight
Geographical Location(s) :
Broader term(s) :
Homo, Hominidae, primates, mammals, vertebrates, Chordata, animals, eukaryotes, Benelux, Developed Countries, European Union Countries, Kingdom of the Netherlands, OECD Countries, Western Europe, Europe